Thursday, August 27, 2020

Who is winning the war on drugs Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Who is winning the war on drugs - Essay Example US has spent a ton of cash on this war on drugs. It has cost the administration billions of dollars yet this issue has not been comprehended. There are different manners by which issue of war on drugs influences numerous individuals on the planet. The issue influences the individuals who utilize the medications and furthermore those whom their relatives are dependent on the medications. There are numerous ways that have been set up to guarantee that issue is tackled. These techniques will help in lessening the impacts of medications in the social orders. War on drugs has been supported to guarantee that medication misuse is killed yet this war itself is turning into an issue in the general public. The war is against the illicit medication exchange that happens in numerous nations. US and different nations are supporting this battle. This war on drugs has been there throughout the previous 40 years yet tranquilize misuse has kept on executing numerous individuals. Nonetheless, the tim e has come to apply different procedures that can assist with decreasing medication maltreatment in the general public (Roleff, 2004). Impacts of medications are experienced by numerous individuals, be it the clients or the individuals who don't utilize them. This is a difficult that has been there in our social orders for long time. It has made it difficult to win the war on drugs. This war on drugs has been made troublesome because of the escalated utilization of the medications in bigger populaces on the planet. War on drugs has been knowledgeable about numerous ways. The main individuals who encountered this war on drugs are the individuals who are manhandling drugs. These individuals experience the war in hard manners. Most families have lost their cherished ones to detainment facilities when they are got either selling or utilizing the medications. Numerous individuals have been imprisoned for a long time since this war on drugs began. The vast majority of the individuals who their relatives have been detained are against this war on drugs. The individuals who are got selling or taking medications additionally have encountered the war on drugs in cruel manner (Inciardi, 2008). Some have been condemned to lifetime detainment while

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Physical Education and

Question: Talk about the Pessimistic Experiences in Physical Education and Sports. Answer: The investigation directed by Beltrn-Carrillo et al. (2012), expects to explore and audit critical encounters in physical training and game in a gathering of idle youthful from Spain both male and female. The principle target of this paper is to comprehend and cause the specialists to tune in to the cynicism that these understudies face and also, the creator needs to attract an association between the dormancy among the understudies to the negative circumstance they were. General wellbeing and physical prosperity involves worry among the specialists around the world. There are a few episodes of physical latency among the young which has risen concerning caution. This is the motivation behind why physical movement and game are critical to consolidate in the daily schedule of the youths. Performative assessment among the youngsters has some genuine negative mishaps like nerves, battles, and disillusionments which further prompts weight and discouragement. The strategy that was followed while gathering the information for audit and review is as per the following: 395 Spanish secondary school understudies were picked as tests for the investigation in the primary quantitative stage and they were said to have been partaken in four unique sorts of physical movement during the year. The example bunch comprised of understudies whose age is in the middle of 17 and 18 years. They understudies had a place with 12 unique schools and are situated in various urban communities of the Valencian Autonomy. In the examination procedure the creators found that the understudies who are typically idle in the games and other truly exercises recollect their instructors and mentors contrarily. This is trailed by the sentiment of getting inadequate chances to play, competitors or truly fit people getting more consideration than the ones who are less dynamic and low talented. They likewise felt disregarded by their instructors or mentors as they suspected they are less gifted that the dynamic ones. Dormant individuals didn't care for the per developmental assessment on serious game or some other physical exercises as they felt avoided from the procedure and they however themselves like extras which was an immediate reason for the conduct of the remainder of the understudies and the educators. There are additionally understudies who are dynamic yet leave a game because of the conduct or the direct of the educator and the mentor. Taking everything into account, the creators state how these bits of knowledge might be useful to minutely consider physical action programs, whose viability is very sketchy for all understudies who experience them. What's more, consequently, negative encounters in execution assessment and game movement advance dormancy. Reference list: Beltrn-Carrillo, V.J., Devs-Devs, J., Peir-Velert, C. furthermore, Brown, D.H., 2012. At the point when physical action interest advances dormancy: Negative encounters of Spanish young people in physical training and sport.Youth Society,44(1), pp.3-27.

Friday, August 21, 2020

Writing Essay Topics in The T.E.Wasteland

Writing Essay Topics in The T.E.WastelandThere are many different types of essay topics that can be used in The T.E. Wasteland. The writer should choose the topic based on the type of game they are writing about. Different Fallout games have different essay topics to choose from, but all the essays can be written about The T.E. Wasteland, a computer game created by Interplay Entertainment.How will you go about choosing the essay topics for the T.E.? Wasteland? You can look for guides on the Internet that will give you advice on which type of essay topics are best for the game. For instance, the guide that is available on the Internet tells you how to write an essay on physics in The T.E. Wasteland.Physics is one of the major subjects that the game has to offer, as it is crucial to the survival of the characters in the game. Many physics topics can be found in the manual or in many other places in the game. However, when you look for the actual guide, what you will find is a lot of wr itten information and very little actual physics information. Therefore, a lot of research needs to be done before you can do an effective physics essay in the game.The best way to write an essay on physics in The T.E. Wasteland is to really do some research. Not only will this help you to gain a deeper understanding of the mechanics of the game, but it will also make it much easier for you to come up with interesting facts and figures for your essay.One thing to remember is that no matter what the topic is, you should always keep your references up to date. For instance, if you are writing an essay on how to get into the game using cheats, you need to know how cheats work in The T.E. Wasteland. This can be difficult to do, as cheats tend to vary depending on the game and the author of the cheat. Therefore, you should look for a cheat that works across all games.If you are writing an essay on how to use the Vault 111 Safehouse, you should first look for hints and tips for surviving in the Safehouse. It is best to look up these hints online and keep notes of all the things you find useful. This will help you in the future when you are writing your essay.Some of the other topics you should look for are the features of the weapons in the game, the locations of these weapons, the locations of locations in the game, and the location of the weapons when used by the player character. There are many topics you should write about, but it is best to take your time and choose the best topic for your needs. Doing this will help you put together a good essay that will stand out from the others. Furthermore, you will also gain great satisfaction when you know you have researched the right information and found it useful.The T.E. Wasteland has many different essay topics to choose from, and if you use the guide and research properly, you will be able to choose the best topic for your needs.

Monday, May 25, 2020

Analysis of The Communist Manifesto Essay - 2962 Words

Karl Marx (1818-1883) was one of the most influential thinkers and writers of modern times. Although it was only until after his death when his doctrine became world know and was titled Marxism. Marx is best known for his publication, The Communist Manifesto that he wrote with Engels; it became a very influential for future ideologies. A German political philosopher and revolutionary, Karl Marx was widely known for his radical concepts of society. This paper give an analysis of â€Å"The Manifesto† which is a series of writings to advocate Marx ‘s theory of struggles between classes. I will be writing on The Communist Manifesto, published in 1848, which lays down his theories on socialism and Communism. The Manifesto has four sections. In†¦show more content†¦Likewise wealth dictated every aspect of the poor working class would live, survive really, they were to become nothing more than human capital. The bourgeoisie used politics, new technological developments, and religion to manipulate the economics and to insure their control sustaining their status. In doing this they kept the proletariats salves to the rich helpless against their control. Capital is a social product and only exists in the social systems. It is not personal but a social power and the lower class becomes dependant on the elite for his survival. Marx’s primarily aims to explain how communism will free men, end the class struggle. The work argues that class struggles, and the exploitation of one class by another is the source of all inequality. Marx’s theories become one the motivating force behind all historical developments. The work strongly advocates the freedom of the proletariats which Marx’s claims can only be achieved when property and other goods cease to be privately owned. He see’s that private property has been a problem through out history, capital that aids the ruling class to maintain control. Marx argues that the lower class come together in a revolution and gain power and eventually take the power away from the upper class. CH 1 Bourgeois and Proletarians In the first section, â€Å" Bourgeois and Proletarians. â€Å"Marx highlights his vision of history, focusing on the development, struggle and eventualShow MoreRelatedAnalysis Of Communist Manifesto By Karl Marx804 Words   |  4 Pagesbeginning of Communist Manifesto by listing out the relationships of social classes: â€Å"Freeman and slave, patrician and plebeian, lord and serf, guild-master and journeyman, in a word, oppressor and oppressed†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (Marx 14). With these social ranks came forth the Bourgeoisie and Proletariat. The Bourgeoisie being the greedy, money grabbing upper class and the Proletariat being the working middle class. As all the European powers allied together to get rid of communism Karl Marx wrote this Manifesto to dispelRead MoreAnalysis Of Karl Marx And The Communist Manifesto1618 Words   |  7 Pages Opening with the famous statement â€Å"The history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles† is Karl Marx and F riedrich Engels’ The Communist Manifesto. Published in 1848, the political pamphlet exercised the belief that communism would dispel capitalism and perpetual class struggles caused by the bourgeoisie, which had remained unchanged as modes of production evolved. Stemming from its origin â€Å"common,† communism proposes the idea of a post-capitalist, classless society whereRead MoreAnalysis Of Karl Marx And The Communist Manifesto1898 Words   |  8 Pages Opening famously with â€Å"the history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles† is Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels’ The Communist Manifesto. Published in 1848, the political pamphlet exercised the belief that communism would dispel capitalism and perpetual class struggles caused by the bourgeoisie, which had remained unchanged as modes of production evolved. Stemming from its origin â€Å"common,† communism proposes the idea of a post-capitalist, classless society where all propertyRead MoreAnalysis of the Communist Manifesto by Karl Marx and Fredrick Engels711 Words   |  3 PagesCommunist Manifesto by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels explains the good parts of the communist system and how it should still apply to the future. They also predicted how the Communist Manifesto can stabilize the class structure without conflict. They talks about how especially through the increase in productivity, the power of the bourgeois class increases. They argues that the social class struggle is the reason for historical developments and if there are no more classes then there is no reasonRead MoreSummary and Critical Analysis of the Communist Manifesto by Karl Marx2260 Words   |  9 PagesSummary I. Bourgeois/Proletarians Individuals have been classified on the basis of prestige acquired mainly through economic success and the accumulation of their wealth throughout history. The Communist Manifesto begins with Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels discussing the differences of the Bourgeois from the Proletarians. The proletariats are exploited and seen as capital, rather than equals by the oppressed bourgeoisie. With the bourgeoisie being a dominant force in the population, they eventuallyRead MoreThe Development Of The Communist Manifesto In The European1083 Words   |  5 PagesThe development of the communist manifesto in the European region has led to the influencing of the different structures present in the area. The communist manifesto has resulted in the formation of holy alliances in the European region. It is due to the effects of the Manifesto that Marx developed the journal to address the issue. The importance of this journal is to highlight the sociological problems that have resulted from the manifesto. The fact that the manifesto has been highlighted by theRead MoreThe Communist Manifesto By Karl Marx And Friedrich Engels831 Words   |  4 PagesAdam Hilt November 4, 2015 COMM 8200 Analysis of The Communist Manifesto A spectre is haunting Europe--the spectre of Communism. The Communist Manifesto reflects an attempt by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels to explain the goals of Communism, as well as the theory behind the movement. Marx sees all of Europe allied against the idea of communism and consistently demonizes it and its followers. This caused the Communists to assemble in London and create this Manifesto in order to make their views publicRead MoreCommunist Manifesto By Marx Engels1031 Words   |  5 PagesAfter firstly briefly reading part of â€Å"communist manifesto† from The Marx-Engels Reader, I have a general understanding about The Communist Manifesto presents an analytical approach to the class struggle (historical and present) and the problems of cap italism. I am more like concerning on bourgeoisie and proletarians. The reason I interested in this section because it introduces and explains the final conflict between the bourgeoisie and the proletariat. Tucker (1978) states: The proletariat goesRead MoreNew Democracy And Manifesto Of Korean Communist Party1273 Words   |  6 PagesChuchu Wang Primary Document Analysis of On New Democracy and Manifesto of Korean Communist Party In January of 1940, Zedong Mao delivered a speech during a liberal conference in Yan’an, the center of communism and socialism in China. In the speech, Mao argued that the fate of Chinese revolution must be held in hands of proletariats, and as a leading result, the revolution must construct China as a socialism country. Two decades ago, in 1921, Shanghai, Korean communists also declared their country’sRead MoreKarl Marx and Frederick Engel Essay947 Words   |  4 Pagesadvocating for a communist society, where all people have equal access to resources. W.E.B Du Bois wanted African Americans to have the same equal rights as the white men. African Americans were neglected in the American society and were not allowed the same rights as the white men. Karl Marx and Fredrick Engel are considered as the most influential figure in the history for the work in preparation of the Communist Manifesto during the revolution period in Europe. The manifesto was an analysis of the emergence

Friday, May 15, 2020

The Meaning of Qualitative Research an Understanding of It

The Meaning of Qualitative Research an Understanding of It Eric Oliver Flores MGMT801 Research and Writing I Maureen Clemmons October 15, 2011 Colorado Technical University Abstract In this paper an accepted and cultured common agreement and understanding of what Qualitative Research does really means, as it is understood will be presented. Through reflections of the material there’s a need to seek and review established definitions and in doing so there’s a possibility to arrive at a defined understanding of qualitative research. Finally, discussions will be centered on how is the process of qualitative research applied and conducted by a social scientist and what would be the growth edge when it comes to educating†¦show more content†¦Recent released studies deliver us with an enormous abundance of statistics indicating the discerning aggravated decay of social realms. According to an on-line article published by leading global research organization (Martin, 2008) the author says that a report sponsored by a charity organization and some other authorities, and disseminated by a foremost University, their official papers, using governmental figures, they depict the melodramatic decay of our overall society in relation to other innovative developed countries and the escalating social inconsistencies within the country. We need to swiftly move and work to bring the country’s greatness back to being that of what it may have been some years ago. To sustain future societal growth and to improve a country the newer generations ought to be guided and prepared to succeed. This is corroborated by the author of Creating better Features (Ogilvy, 2002) when he says that a superior share of the magnificence of being human lies in our aptitude to image better future expectations and make them happen. The fact is that a near future should be indeed better than what it is today. Certainly this proposed dossier tries to understand the study society in general through qualitative research by studying society through a series of general research questions to better understand what s broken with society and to quickly move and take the necessary steps toShow MoreRelatedThe Theoretical Methods Of Quantitative And Qualitative Methods Essay1652 Words   |  7 PagesThe sociologist is interested in understanding the self, other, and social environment, questioning and searching for an interpretation of the common, everyday, and taken for granted. In order to do this, the sociologist needs to apply some form of research and method, however the most successful direction for doing so has been long disputed. Although sociological method has been subject to many different styles and approaches, being constantly updated with new ideas and concepts, this essay willRead MoreSOCIAL ENQUIRY METHODS assignment 1944 Words   |  4 Pages SA TA FAHNBULLEH SOCIAL ENQUIRY METHODS ASSIGNMENT 1: RESEARCH METHODS If you wanted to examine young people’s experiences of homelessness, would you use qualitative methods, quantitative methods or a mixed methods approach? Explain your answer. Brief definition of homelessness The Australian Bureau of Statistic (2012) defines ‘homelessness’ based on a conceptualRead MoreQualitative, Qualitative And Qualitative Research1272 Words   |  6 Pagesdescribe qualitative research. Qualitative inquiry is a systematic process of describing, analyzing and interpreting insights discovered in every day life. Similar to quantitative research, qualitative methods begin with [empirical] observation of a phenomenon and its characteristics. In qualitative studies, the logic of inference is one of directly observed comparison, resulting in new insights and reclassifications, rather than strict numerical comparison and classification. This form of research generatesRead MoreEssay on Qualitative Research for Instructional Technology1063 Words   |  5 PagesQualitative Research for Instructional Technology Background: A trend of the past several years has been the growing use of qualitative research for educational research. Qualitative research, broadly defined, means any kind of research that produces findings not arrived at by means of statistical procedures or other means of quantification. Where quantitative researchers seek causal determination, prediction, and generalization of findings, qualitative researchers seek instead illuminationRead MoreCompare and Contrast Qualitative and Quantitaitve Research Methods1403 Words   |  6 PagesCompare and contrast Qualitative and Quantitative research methods Monique Gowans Charles Stuart University Compare and Contrast Qualitative and Quantitative Research Methods Qualitative research methods are complex meaningful analysis characterised by processes and meanings that are not experimentally examined or measured in terms of mathematical measurements (Lincoln, 2003; Sarantakos, 2005). Quantitative research however, relies and builds on mathematical procedures and methods, suchRead MoreQuantitative Research : Qualitative Research825 Words   |  4 PagesPoints of Consideration for this Qualitative Research Skinner, Tagg, and Holloway (2000) stressed that engaging in qualitative research demands an understanding of some of the drawbacks associated with doing this type of research. A number of common concerns related to qualitative research are found in the literature. The time and resources involved in collecting and analyzing qualitative data are mentioned frequently (e.g., Creswell, 1998; Skinner, Tagg, Holloway, 2000). A related concern involvesRead MoreResearch Methodology And Quantitative Research1365 Words   |  6 Pages This section of the study will outline the selected research methodology and the justification for these selections. The key aim of this chapter is to elucidate the various methods of research, the chosen one, the rationale of the chosen methodology and importantly how it appropriately suite the research. It is first essential to start the difference between qualitative and quantitative research to determine which method is best appropriate for this study. The data collection method will be properlyRead MoreResearch Methodology : Research Project1402 Words   |  6 PagesRESEARCH METHODOLOGY 1. RESEARCH PARADIGM Stating a knowledge claim means that researchers start a project with certain assumptions about how they will learn and what they will learn during their enquiry. These claims might be called as paradigms (Lincoln Guba, 2000; Mertens, 1998); philosophical assumptions, epistemologies, and ontologies (Crotty, 1998); or broadly conceived research methodologies (Neuman, 2000). Philosophically, researchers make claims about what is knowledge (ontology), howRead MoreA Research Study On Sedation Management799 Words   |  4 PagesResearch Critique The design of both quantitative and qualitative research offer valuable information to the health sciences. There are circumstances when certainty is necessary, and a quantitative design is needed. In contrast, there are times when an understanding of the quality of a particular social interaction is needed. The paper will apply a quantitative and a qualitative research article to the topic of sedation management to help validate meaning gleaned from two different research designsRead MoreEssay on Interpretive vs. Objective Theory: Communication Studies1551 Words   |  7 PagesTech University Interpretative and Objective Theory Introduction Understanding the differences and similarities of interpretive and objective theory approaches is key to further expand one’s knowledge of communication studies. Author of A First Look at Communication Theory Em Griffin, describes interpretive theories as â€Å"the linguistic work of assigning meaning or value to communicative texts; assumes that multiple meanings or truths are possible† (Griffin, p.15). He also defines objective theory

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Social Entrepreneurship And Social Innovation - 1502 Words

Social Entrepreneurship The term â€Å"social entrepreneurship† first appeared in the scholarly literature over 35 years ago in a publication titled The Sociology of Social Movements (Banks,1972). However, Social entrepreneurship has its origins in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries when philanthropic business owners and industrialists like Robert Owen, demonstrated a concern for the welfare of employees by improving their working, schooling and cultural lives. Since then, social entrepreneurship has been associated with community enterprise and development, education, churches, charities, the not-for-profit sector and voluntary organisations. (Shaw Carter, 2007) Dees (1998) defined social entrepreneurship as the production of social value by individuals with: †¢ A mission to create and sustain social value, as change agents in the social sector; †¢ The relentless pursuit of new opportunities to serve that mission; †¢ A commitment to the process of continuous innovation, adaptation, and learning; †¢ The readiness to act boldly without being limited by resources currently in hand; †¢ Heightened accountability to the constituencies served and for the outcomes created (Light, 2009). This definition lays emphasis on the need to produce social value by instilling various behaviours and attitudes on an individualistic level. Dees has accurately defined the exact characteristics of general entrepreneurial behaviour in the definition. I feel that this is the most ideal definition ofShow MoreRelatedResource Based View of Social Entrepreneurship: Puting the Pieces Together813 Words   |  3 Pages The emerging field of social entrepreneurship calls for a need for new integrated theories to contribute to the discipline and help grow the field. Social Entrepreneurship has been a topic of academic interest for the past few decades; however there has been little scholarly output in mainstream journals (Short, Moss, Lumpkin 2009). Social entrepreneurship is commonly defined as â€Å"entrepreneurial activity with an embedded social purpose† (Austin et al. 2006). Social entrepreneurs play a roleRead MoreThe Fight Against Poverty Around The World1394 Words   |  6 Pagesdirection is the social entrepreneurship. The task of the social enterprises is to contribute to the solving of the social problems and promoting of the people s livelihood. Social enterprises provide jobs for hundreds of thousands of people in the various fields: food production, marketing, credit, insurance, and transportation. The social enterprises open a variety of employment opportunities for the peop le with disabilities, marginalized groups, youth, and women. In many countries the social enterprisesRead MoreInnovation and Entrepreneurship in the United Arab Emirates Essay1704 Words   |  7 PagesThere are many social returns that can be gained from the Sougha program. Alleviation of unemployment, women empowerment and the all-important role of preserving indigenous Emirati heritage are just examples of the social impact of Sougha. The program is cognizant of the fact that a large population of Emiratis possesses enormous potential for entrepreneurship but is largely unable to achieve employment. Because of the Sougha program, such individuals are able to access assistance, both materialRead MoreEssay on Can Entrepreneurship Improve Africas Wellbeing Development1628 Words   |  7 PagesCan Entrepreneurship Improve Africa’s Wellbeing Development? Introduction Africa is one of the poorest areas in the world. Data shows that in some countries, poverty reaches unbelievable rates and people live with less than $1 a day (Ngwane 2003). In contrast, in some countries like USA bankers and CEOs earn up to 400 million dollars a year in bonuses and salaries (Enron 2005). On the other hand, entrepreneurship has significantly increased developed countries’ wellbeing in the last century. InRead MoreFactors That Can Promote or Hinder Enterpreneurship1492 Words   |  6 PagesLIST AND EXPLAIN FACTORS THAT CAN PROMOTE OR HINDER ENTREPRENEURSHIP. Entrepreneur: An entrepreneur is a person who starts an enterprise. He searches for change and responds to it. A number of definitions have been given of an entrepreneur- The economists view him as a fourth factor of production along with land labour and capital. To put it very simply an entrepreneur is someone who perceives opportunity, organizes resources needed for exploiting that opportunity and exploits it. Computers, mobileRead MoreEssay On Social Entrepreneurship Among Dalits And Tribes Of India1424 Words   |  6 PagesSOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP AMONG DALITS AND TRIBES OF INDIA: CHALLENGES AND ACHIEVEMENTS RAJESH KUMAR. MD RESEARCH SCHOLAR, DEPARTMENT OF SOCIAL WORK, OSMANIA UNIVERSITY, HYDERABAD, TELANGANA STATE, INDIA . MAIL ID: MOBILE. NO: +91 9154324766. Abstract Social entrepreneurship promotes the most innovative solutions to the most pressing social problems of a society. The mission behind origin of social enterprises is to bring social change. Social entrepreneurs are considered asRead MoreEnterprise : An Entrepreneur Who Demonstrates Passion, Commitment, Technical Skills And Dedication Essay1436 Words   |  6 Pagesbusiness along with risks to develop and organise a business to turn into profitability in a competitive market. It is the journey towards the innovation and to explore the opportunities to create and run a successful business to withstand in a competitive market. ENTREPRENEURSHIP: Entrepreneurship is a state of mind whereas innovation is the prerequisite of it. An entrepreneur discovers and exploits opportunities, takes risks beyond capabilities, uses intuition explores newRead MoreOpportunities And Threats Of Entrepreneurship1483 Words   |  6 Pagesâ€Å"technological disruption, fluctuating economies or demographical changes† (Toma et al., 2014). Entrepreneurship has gradually gone into the view of the public, as well as scholars, in order to tackle the changing forces (Castaà ±o et al., 2015; Toma et al., 2014). It may positively influence on economic growth due to the entrepreneurial activities it causes. Thus, scholars have shown increasing interest in entrepreneurship (à cset al., 2013; Audretsch et al. 2006; Caree et al., 2010; Harper, 2003; Naudà ©, 2011;Read MoreThe Beginning of Development and Success1822 Words   |  7 Pagestaking the risk in the business. It performs in the role of innovation as the key of dev elopment and success which associates with society, currency, creativity and sustainability. Entrepreneurs also involve in economic development, interacting with suppliers and customers to create a market and variation of the product. The entrepreneurship, innovation and economic development are performing together in the relationship. First, entrepreneurship is action of people who want to start or make new businessRead More What do you understand to be the concept of entrepreneurship and why1626 Words   |  7 PagesWhat do you understand to be the concept of entrepreneurship and why has it become such an important area of focus? Q2) What do you understand to be the concept of entrepreneurship and why has it become such an important area of focus? The concept of entrepreneurship is often viewed as a function, which involves the exploitation of opportunities, which exist within a market. Such exploitation is most commonly associated with the direction and/or combination of productive inputs. Entrepreneurs

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Strategic Change Business Environment

Question: Discuss about theStrategic Change for Business Environment. Answer: Introduction Globalisation, complexity and competition are the three key terms that define todays dynamic business environment. Change today is not only considered as the key to survival but also to success (Jacobs, 1997). Defined as the process of transformation from the know state to the unknown state, change is associated with high uncertainty and insecurity which gives rise to resistance to change. To remain competitive organisations ensure that their business and corporate level strategies are defined in a way that it makes the organisation adaptable and flexible enough to response spontaneously to environmental changes. Events, developments and trends that have the potential to impact an organisations strategy are referred to as strategic issues. Strategy makers within an organisation can perceive these strategic issues either as threats or opportunities and accordingly define changed strategies (Samson Bevington, 2012). This report aims at defining the process and types of strategic chang e and reviews PWC consulting firm structure to determine how different types of strategic change supports or hinders the achievement of their organisational goals. What is Strategic Change? Change is inevitable and is often seen as a means to manage several challenges such as those related to effectiveness, efficiency, competitiveness, shared values, cooperation, understanding and quality (Lewis, 2011). Change sometimes appears as the only way of achieving learning and improvements and rectifying past failures. Change is sometimes necessary because it provides an opportunity for development, growth, increasing resources and capturing moments which if missed can have negative impact on the organisation. Globalisation, advancement in technology and generational differences are found to be the three key pressures behind change. Organisational changes never happen spontaneously and are often triggered by occasions and problems and then are led by leaders (Vithessonthi Thoumrungroje, 2011). These changes can be as simple as reorganising specific departments or of a strategic nature affecting the whole organisation such as changing its culture, strategies, resources and empl oyees. Strategic change is the process of restructuring the marketing or business plan of an organisation in a way that is leads to achievement of organisational objectives. It is important to ensure that these changes are managed in a thoughtful and structured way (Roberts, 2008). Thus, the process of strategic change is not only concerned about deciding what changes are to be made but also deciding when and how to change specific elements of ones strategic orientation. Urgency for strategic change is driven by a dramatic decline in organisational performance or changes in business environment or because of both forces acting together. The process of strategic change is divided into four steps namely; Strategic analysis which is the first step and involves analysing the current strategic orientation of an organisation, studying its external and internal environment and evaluating its effectiveness in achieving its mission and objectives (Rezvani, Dehkordi, Shamsollahi, 2012). Second step is strategy making which involves defining new vision and orientation for the organisation. It includes defining products and services that the organisation aims to offer in future to realise its new goals. During this step organisations define their target market and develop competitive strategies. The underlying culture and processes of the organisation is analysed to determine their role in the change process. Strategic plan design is the third step in the strategic change process and defines how the change process will be actually implemented considering the impact of current organisational culture and the existing sources of resistance to change(Rezvani, Dehkordi, Shamsollahi, 2012). Final step in the process of strategic change is the implementation of the plan which involves developing timetables and budgets, assigning tasks and roles that will guide the process, effective communication of the vision for managing resistance to change and allocating support resources such that the transition to new orientation occurs in an effective manner. Types of Strategic Change Depending upon the extent of change required and the speed at which it is must be achieved, strategic changes are classified into four types namely, evolution, adaptation, revolution and reconstruction(Bateh, Castaneda, Farah, 2013). Evolution is the transformational change which is implemented gradually following a series of interrelated initiatives. It is a form of proactive change that is undertaken when a need for change in future is identified. Adaptation is the realignment change implemented in a series of steps to realign the existing operating policies and procedures of the organisation(Erwin Garman, 2010). Revolution is the transformational change that is implemented through simultaneous initiatives on different fronts. It is a forced or reactive change that occurs within an organisation when faced by changing competitive conditions. Reconstruction is the realignment change that occurs through many initiatives implemented simultaneously. It involves realigning the way in w hich organisation operates when forced by a changing competitive business environment(Galavan, Murray, Markides, 2008). Among the four different types of strategic change, transformational change is the most challenging form of change and requires high amount of efforts. Ultimate goal of transformational change is to bring about considerable changes in the culture of the organisation, it requires changing the way individuals think about their work and behave towards others, a process that requires time. It is important to understand that organisations cannot undergo revolutionary changes until the readiness for change among employees is very high(Lewis, 2011). An organisation that aim to bring about immediate changes often look forward to replacing its existing staff with new employees. There are times when organisations want to achieve transformational change in a revolutionary manner but they often fail doing so owing to the expense and enormity associated with the transition tas k. Revolutionary and Evolutionary Strategic Changes with Reference to PWC Consulting Firm Strategic organisational changes either occur slowly or quickly depending upon the urgency of change and the extent to which changes are required(Hellriegel John W. Slocum, 2011). The revolutionary changes are forced down, dramatic and immediate. They come as high pressure mandates from senior leadership when they say certain changes are to be made at any cost. Once the decision is finalised the leadership team entertains discussion however it is made clear that the desired changes must be implemented(Hellriegel John W. Slocum, 2011). Revolutionary changes being quick in nature are often more successful. All available resources are allocated in the process as the senior leadership team feels the change is inevitable. There are fewer changes of internal politics as the senior leadership applies full political power to reduce the affects of opposition. Mergers and acquisitions are considered as important instruments of strategic change (Kansal Chandani, 2014). They are examples of r evolutionary changes that are initiated at senior leadership level and are imposed as mandatory action. Mergers and acquisitions enable organisations increase their core competencies and strengthen their competitive advantage. PwCs acquisition of Booz and Company is an example of revolutionary change that happened in year 2014 (PWC, 2014). This revolutionary change at PWC will help the organisation navigate disruptive and unprecedented threats and strengthen its current market position. PWC consulting firms structure served as a catalyst in the path of this revolutionary change that was required by the organisation and will help the organisation achieve its organisational goals(King Lawley, 2013). PWC and Strategy together will make PWC competent enough to change and lead the landscape of consulting business across the globe (PWC, 2014). PWCs goal is to change the way in which strategy work is done and what world thinks about strategy, and its acquisition of Booz and Company will facilitate achievement of this goals (PWC, 2014).The company has a well defined organisational structure with clearly defined roles and responsibilities thus ensuring full political power in times of revolutionary changes. The addition of Booz and Company helped PWC widen their talent pool and get increased access to more skilled employees in Asia and Australia (PWC, 2016). Though revolutionary changes can hamper the culture of an organisation however in this case PWCs strong and interlocked organisational structure facilitated effective management of resistance to change. Evolutionary changes when compared to revolutionary changes occur gradually and are built collaboratively(Hellriegel John W. Slocum, 2011). The need for change is not driven by senior management however it is important that they are effectively engaged in the change process. Senior Leadership during evolutionary changes is responsible for communicating the need for change and empowering employees to take on the change. The change happens in small steps and people are gradually trained to accept the changes and live by it. PWCs diversification from Audit to IT services to increase its market share is an example of evolutionary change that helped the company achieves its organisational goals. Diversification in IT services enables PWC support their technology clients in developing long term strategic objectives and solve their technical and business issues (PWC, 2016).Implementing the desired strategic changes required to company to realign its existing operations and recruit new empl oyees who possessed relevant skills. The company had to make huge investment in the training of its employees and building the required infrastructure (Tadena, 2015). This evolutionary change was carried out effectively at PWC owing to its knowledge sharing culture and strong leadership(Kotter Schlesinger, 2008). Employees were effectively engaged and the change was communicated effectively to win their empathy and support. Implementing this evolutionary change helped the company increase its overall market share and retain their competitive advantage (Hellriegel John W. Slocum, 2011) .PWC lead this evolutionary change with its culture making it the winning strategy. It is important to ensure that all layers of management are involved in the evolutionary change process (Sirkin, Keenan, Jackson, 2005). An analysis of PWC consulting firms structure reveals that the structure might serve as an hindrance in the achievement of their organisational goals at the time of evolutionary cha nge because too much decision making power is saturated at the leadership level(King Lawley, 2013). Effective communication at all level of organisational structure and employee engagement was be the key to successful evolutionary change at PWC consulting firm. Conclusion Successful strategic change management process starts with the preparation for the strategic planning procedure. Strategic decision makers are expected to define clear vision, mission and values for the organisation. It is important to identify key stakeholders and evaluate their needs and motives. External and internal business environment analysis is important to identify the gap between current and expected state of the organisation. Depending upon the identified strategic issues, strategic decision makers expand existing goals, performance measures, objectives and action plans of the organisation to ensure future expectations are achieved. Once the future goals and objectives are clear, strategic decision makers evaluate and work out strategies which are implemented once commitment from all stakeholders is received. An organisations structure can sever as a support or hindrance on path of strategic change depending upon the degree of change required and time needed to achieve it. References Bateh, J., Castaneda, M. E., Farah, J. E. (2013). Employee Resistance To Organizational Change. International Journal of Management Information Systems (IJMIS) , 17 (2). Erwin, D. G., Garman, A. N. (2010). Resistance to organizational change: linking researchand practice. Leadership Organization Development Journal , 31 (1), 39-56. Galavan, R., Murray, J., Markides, C. (2008). 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